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Al2O3:Cr+3 - trójtlenek
glinu domieszkowany trójwartościowymi jonami chromu.
Twardość w skali Mohsa
– 3,95 do 4,1 g/cm3
o różnych odcieniach i różnym stopniu nasycenia; niekiedy
– szklisty, diamentowy
– muszlowy lub zadziorowy; kruchy
– silny, zmienny; obserwowane barwy: purpurowoczerwona-
– wyraźna, nadaje rubinom szczególnego kolorytu, podwyższając ich
walory estetyczne. Znane są okazy wykazujące
o barwie jasnożółtej i kremowożółtej.
– liczne, ich rodzaj wskazuje na pochodzenie kamieni: np. dla
rubinów birmańskich charakterystyczne są krótkie igiełki
dla tajlandzkich – brak rutylu; pakistańskie zwykle zawierają
– rubin gwiaździsty oraz
efekt kociego oka.
Zazwyczaj tworzy kryształy o
tabliczkowym, bipiramidalnym lub słupkowym o podstawie sześcioboku,
Nasycenie barwy rubinu zależy od domieszek: czerwoną barwę wywołuje
Jako składnik bogatych w
skałach metamorficznych, także jako minerał kontaktowy w
– (Ratnapura, Rakwana),
– (Chanthaburi, Battambang),
– (pakistańska część Kaszmiru),
– ( Mandalay,Mogok) ,
– (okolice Jagdalak),
– w przeszłości,
złotonośne Dolnego Śląska w okolicy Złotoryi,
k.Karpacza i w
rubin polerowano za pomocą
Which colour would you spontaneously associate with love and
vividness, passion and power? Obviously this will evoke the colour
red. Red symbolizes love, it emanates warmth and a strong sense of
life. Red is also the colour of Ruby, the King of gemstones. After
all, in the fascinating realm of gemstones rubies are the generally
For thousands of years Ruby has been considered on of the most
valuable gemstones of our Earth. It has got all it takes for a
precious stone: a wonderful colour, excellent hardness and an
overwhelming brilliance. Besides, it is an extremely rare gemstone,
especially in the finer qualities.
For a long time India was considered as the classical country of
Rubies. The literature of India contains a rich and varied knowledge
collected and handed down for over two thousand years. Even the term
"corundum” which we use today is derived from the Sanskrit word "kuruvinda”.
In the Sanskrit language Ruby is called "ratnaraj”, which does in
fact translate as "King of Gemstones”. And it was a royal welcome
indeed which used to be prepared for this King of Gemstones:
Whenever a spectacular Ruby crystal was found, the emperor sent out
his notables to meet the precious gemstone and welcome it in
appropriate style. Today Rubies decorate the insignia of many Royal
Houses. But are they really all Rubies? Read on to find out more !
Only a Bit of Chrome
Ruby is the red variety of the corundum mineral, one of the hardest
minerals on Earth which also includes Sapphire. Pure corundum is
colourless. Slight traces of the colour creating elements such as
chrome, iron, titanium or vanadium are responsible for the colour.
These gemstones show an excellent hardness. On the Moh's Scale they
achieve a hardness of 9, second only to diamonds. And only red
corundum may be called Ruby, any other colour is denominate as
Sapphires. The close relationship of Ruby and Sapphire has been
known since the beginning of the 19th century. Up to that time, also
red Garnets or Spinells were thought to be Rubies – and due to this
misclassification the so-called "Black Ruby” as well as the "Timur
Ruby” decorating the British Crown Jewels are probably actually no
Rubies at all, but Spinells.
Ruby, this magnificent red variety of the multi-coloured corundum
family, consists of aluminium oxide and chrome as well as smallest
proportions of other trace elements - depending on the respective
occurrence. In really fine colours and good clarity, however, this
gemstone is mined only rarely all over the world. Responsible for
this scarcity is in fact the colour-creating element chrome.
Millions of years ago, when the gemstones were being created, chrome
was the element awarding Ruby its wonderful colour deep inside the
core of the Earth. But at the same time it is also responsible for
causing a multitude of fissures and tiny irregularities inside the
crystals. Only very few ruby crystals could grow undisturbed to
considerable sizes and crystallise to form a perfect gemstone.
Therefore, then, fine Rubies are quite scarce in sizes above 3
karats. Thus it is no miracle that Rubies with hardly any inclusions
are so valuable that in good colours and larger sizes they will
achieve top prices at auctions, which surpass even those paid for
Some Rubies show a wonderful silky shine, the so-called "silk” of
the Ruby. The reason for this phenomenon are finest rutilum needles.
And now and then we will come across one of the very scarce Star
Rubies. Again the rutilum mineral is involved here: it is embedded
asterisk-shaped within the Ruby thus causing the charming light
effect which is termed "Asterism” by the experts. If such Rubies are
cut as half-dome shaped cabochons, this will result in six-ray stars
which seem to magically glide across the surface of the moving
stones. Star Rubies are expensive rarities Their value is assessed
according to beauty and attractive colour, while transparency is
secondary. Fine Star Rubies, however, should always display rays
which are completely shaped including the rounding, and the stars
should be situated right in the centre.
Ruby-red means Passion
Red like Ruby. Ruby-red. The most important characteristic about
that valuable stone is its colour. There is of course a reason for
this: the name "Ruby” was derived from the Latin word "rubens”
meaning "red”. The red of Rubies is in a class all by otself: warm
and fiery. Two magical elements are associated with the symbolism of
this colour: fire and blood, implying warmth and life for mankind.
And thus Ruby-red is not just any old colour, no, it is the epitome
of colour: hot, passionate and powerful colour. Like no other
gemstone Ruby is the perfect symbol of powerful feelings. A ring set
with a precious Ruby does not really symbolise a calm and moderate
sympathy, but rather passionate and unbridled love which two people
feel for each other.
Birthplace of Fine Rubies
Which is the most beautiful Ruby? This an excellent question. After
all, a Ruby may show very different shades of red depending on its
origin. The range of the different reds is quite considerable;
compared to hotel categories one might say it ranges from luxury
accommodation to simple and plain inns. For example, id the gemstone
experts talk about Burmese Ruby this indicates the top luxury
category. However, it does not necessary follow that the stone has
to be of Burmese origin. It is basically an indication of the fact
that the colour of said Ruby is the typical shade originally shown
by stones from the famous occurrences in Burma, nowadays called
Myanmar: a satiated red with a slightly bluish hue. Sometimes "dove-blood-red”
is also mentioned, but the term "Burma-colour” is far more precise.
An expert will immediately associate this colour with the legendary
"Mogok Stone Tract” and the gemstone centre of Mogok in the North of
Myanmar. Here we will find the famous Ruby occurrences of the
country situated in a mountain valley surrounded by high summits. By
hard labour gemstones are brought to daylight in the "valley of
Rubies”, stones with a fascinating brilliance second to none.
Unfortunately, fine qualities are quite scarce here, too. The colour
of Burma Ruby is considered to be exceptionally vivid. It is said to
display its unique brilliance in any light, natural or artificial.
The journey to the most important Ruby occurrences of the World
leads us further on to the small city of Mong Hsu in the North-East
of Myanmar, where we can find the most important Ruby occurrences of
the nineties. Originally these were hardly considered adequate to be
used for jewellery, as Mong Hsu Ruby crystals show two colours when
untreated: a purple to blackish core and a bright red brim. Only
when it was discovered that the dark core would disappear after heat
treatment and only the deep red would remain, Rubies from Mong Hsu
could find their way to the jewellery market. Today the Mong Hsu
gemstone mines are still among the most important Ruby suppliers.
They mostly offer heat-treated Rubies in commercial qualities and
sizes between 0.5 and 3 carats.
Ruby occurrences exist also in the neighbouring country of Viet Nam,
near the Chinese border. Rubies of Vietnamese origin generally
display a slightly purplish hue. Rubies from Thailand, another
classical supplier of Rubies, however, produces Rubies which are
often dark red tending towards brown. This "Siam colour” - an
elegantly modulated deep red - is considered almost as beautiful in
Rubies as the Burma-colour, and is especially cherished in the USA.
The Ceylon-Rubies, however, which are quite scarce nowadays, were
mainly light red, like ripe raspberries.
Other Ruby occurrences are located in Northern Pakistan in the
Hunza-Valley, or in Cashmere, Tadchikistan, Laos, Nepal, and
Afghanistan. But Rubies are also produced in India, wherein the
Federal states of Mysore and Orissa there were discovered
occurrences with relatively large Ruby crystals, which are, however,
full of inclusions, but nevertheless excellently suited to be cut as
Ruby beads or cabochons.
Currently East Africa has become an issue concerning Ruby
occurrences. Rubies from Kenya and Tanzania managed ton surprise
everybody, including the experts, when they were discovered in the
sixties. The reason for this was their remarkably beautiful colour,
which may vary from light to dark red. But also in the African mines
fine and clear Rubies in good colour and size are rarely found.
Usually the qualities mined are more or less simple average.
Colour above (almost) Everything
As stated above: colour is Ruby's most important feature, and
transparency is secondary only. Therefore, then, inclusions do not
effect the quality of a Ruby, unless they decrease the transparency
of the stone or are located right in the centre of its table. Quite
the contrary applies: inclusions within a ruby are something like
the gemstones fingerprints, stating its individuality while at the
same time proving its genuineness like a certificate provided by
Nature. The cut is essential: only a perfect cut will underline the
beauty of this valuable and precious stone appropriately to make it
really the "King of Gemstones”. But just as true love is rare indeed,
so are really perfect Rubies. And if you find one, it is bound to
cost a small fortune. Nevertheless: once you found "your” Ruby, do
not hesitate: go for it and keep it!